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Conclusion

Percutaneous vertebroplasty is usually performed under single-plane fluoroscopy guidance.

For novice operating physicians the procedure should be performed using biplane systems intially. Biplane fluoroscopic equipement facilitates the rapid aquisition of guidance information in two planes allowing to speed the procedure.  

A combination of CT and fluoroscopy imaging provides an ever safer and easier guidance especially in very difficult cases.  However, this type of expensive and cumbersome equipment is not commonly available in all departments.