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The patient is placed in a prone position on the CT table. In order to open up the posterior aspect of the disk space, rolls are positioned under the abdomen to place the lumbar spine in a semiflexed position. This is particularly helpful for the L5-S1 level. The entry point and the pathway are determined by CT, avoiding the nerve root and visceral structures. At the L5-S1 level curved needles are usually necessary.

Fig 9: PLDD CT pathway

Fig 8: PLDD CT disk herniation


Fig 10: PLDD CT pathway